The pressure difference determines pulmonary ventilation because air flows along a pressure gradient, which means that air flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. Air circulates in the lungs mainly due to a difference in pressure; Atmospheric pressure is higher than intraalveolar pressure and intraalveolar pressure is higher than intraalveolar pressure. Air flows from the lungs during exhalation according to the same principle; The pressure in the lungs becomes higher than the atmospheric pressure. Pulmonary ventilation is commonly referred to as breathing. It is the process by which air circulates in the lungs during inhalation (inhalation) and the lungs during exhalation (exhalation). Air circulates due to pressure differences between the atmosphere and gases in the lungs. During the maximum forced exhalation, the lungs do their best to push air out of the lungs with the greatest force. This cannot be achieved by the lungs alone, so the additional contraction of the abdominal muscles helps to push air out of the lungs with maximum force. During exhalation, the elasticity of the lungs compresses the walls and increases the pressure inside, so that it exceeds atmospheric pressure and forces air out.
People, no matter how it may feel, do not suck in the air; on the contrary, pressure differences allow air to enter and exit. During the process, the diaphragm relaxes and tilts into the chest cavity, thereby reducing the volume of the chest cavity. This leads to a corresponding increase in pressure (Boylesche`s law) and therefore to the movement of air from the lungs of the body through the structures of the upper respiratory tract. Involuntary disintegration is not under conscious control and is an important component of metabolic function. Examples are breathing during sleep or meditation. Changes in breathing habits can also occur for metabolic reasons, such as increased respiratory rate in people with acidosis due to negative feedback. The main neural control center for involuntary exhalation consists of the oblong marrow and pons, which are located in the brain stem just below the brain. Although these two structures are involved in controlling neuronal breathing, they also have other metabolic regulation functions for other body systems, such as the cardiovascular system. To initiate breathing, the dorsal respiratory group sends impulses through the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and through the intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles. In order for drainage to take place, the group of dorsal airways stops triggering impulses so that the muscles can relax. When forced exhalation is necessary, the impulses of the respiratory group reach the ventral group and activate it.
This group, in turn, initiates impulses that reach the right abdominals through the thoracoabdominal nerves and the internal intercostal nerves through the intercostal nerves. Inhalation is the process of absorbing air into the lungs. This is the active phase of ventilation because it is the result of muscle contraction. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and the chest cavity increases in volume. As a result, the intraalveolar pressure is lowered so that air circulates in the lungs. Inspiration draws air into the lungs. If this is the case, and as with the active decay phase, these networks should also be coordinated with other networks that control the rhythms of the other respiratory phases. However, the neurons that could coordinate these rhythms are also currently unknown. As already mentioned, there is a surface tension in the alveoli caused by the water present in the mucosa of the alveoli. This surface tension tends to inhibit the expansion of the alveoli. However, the pulmonary surfactant secreted by type II alveolar cells mixes with this water and helps reduce this surface tension. Without pulmonary surfactant, the alveoli would collapse on exhalation.
Forced breathing is a type of active breathing that uses extra muscle to expand and quickly contract the volume of the chest cavity. It most often occurs during exercise. During breathing, the diaphragm contracts and relaxes alternately to change the pressure of the lungs. Which of the following is correct during the process? The second phase is called expiration or expiration. When the lungs exhale, the diaphragm relaxes and the volume of the chest cavity decreases, while the pressure increases. As a result, the lungs contract and air is expelled. Similar to inspiration, the process can become active in certain situations such as movement or the practice of an instrument. The right abdominals and the internal intercostal muscles are recruited.
The first pair increases intra-abdominal pressure and pushes the diaphragm even higher. The second pair pulls the ribs down and inward, further reducing the size of the chest cavity.