The Achaemenid kings of Persia ruled the largest empire in the Middle East. These are the 12 kings who ruled the empire from its foundation to its fall. Xerxes reigned for twenty years and was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes. He was assassinated around 465 BC. J.-C. by Artabanus and Spamitres. There are not many monuments attributed to Xerxes. Translated ancient Roman and Greek accounts give a vivid description of the tomb both geometrically and aesthetically; The geometric shape of the tomb has hardly changed over the years, always retaining a large square-shaped stone at the base, followed by a pyramidal succession of smaller rectangular stones, until, after a few slabs, the structure is constrained by a building with a vaulted roof made of a pyramidal stone and a small opening or window on the side. where the thinnest man could barely sneak in.  The story of Esther – the basis of the holiday of Purim – takes place in Shishan, the winter capital of Persia.
Esther was a beautiful Jewish woman who lived there with her uncle Mordechai, who had adopted her. The ruler of Persia was Emperor Akshashversus (also known by the Greek name of Xerxes). After expelling his wife Vashto for refusing to obey his orders, the emperor chose Esther as his new wife. She had been a member of his harem. Akshashversus did not know she was Jewish. Shortly after becoming queen, she warned the emperor of a conspiracy to kill him after learning of Morechai`s conspiracy. Akshashversus was grateful. Artaxerxes I also gave refuge to Themistocles, an architect of the Greek victory at Salamis, after his exile from Athens. Themistocles so impressed the king of Persia that several cities in Asia Minor were awarded to him. It is also believed that Artaxerxes I is the Artaxerxes mentioned in the biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah. In these books, Artaxerxes I gave Ezra permission to teach Jewish law to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, while Nehemiah received permission to rebuild the city of Jerusalem and its walls.
Artaxerxes I even provided wood for the citadel and temple in Jerusalem. Herodotus wrote in Book VII of the “Histories”: “Xerxes, when he ascended the throne, was coldly disposed to Greek war and set himself the task of assembling an army against Egypt. But Mardonius, the son of Gobryas, who was at court and had more influence over him than any other Persia, since he was his own cousin, the child of a sister of Darius, showered him with speeches such as this: “Master, it is not proper for them to depart from Athens unscathed, after having done so much harm to the Persians. Complete the work you now have in your hands, and then, when the pride of Egypt is humiliated, lead an army against Athens. Thus, you yourself will have good relations among the people, and others will now fear attacking your country. Hitherto it was vengeance that he was talking about; but he sometimes varied the subject, noting in passing “that Europe was a wonderfully beautiful region, rich in all kinds of cultivated trees, and the soil excellent: no one, except the king, was worthy to possess such land.” [Source: Herodotus “The History of Herodotus” Book VII and VIII on the Persian War, 440 BC, translated by George Rawlinson, Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece, Fordham University] Darius I would have become king in a very unusual way. His predecessor Cambyses left Egypt in 522 BC. J.-C.
and died on the way to Persia. His brother Bardiya/Smerdis – or the impostor Gaumata – followed him briefly until Darius led a coup and assassinated him the same year. Darius was one of seven men tasked with finding and killing an impostor named Smerdis. After the death and beheading of Smerdis and a few others who stood in the path of the seven men, a massacre broke out when the people saw the heads of the traitors. The remaining men decided that after being ridden on their horses, the horse that neighed for the first time at sunrise should have the kingdom. Oebares, Darius` groom, managed to make Darius` horse neigh when they were all ridden at sunrise, making Darius the ruler of the New Kingdom one day. [Source: Minnesota State University, Mankato] Cambyses is considered by Herodotus and Ctesias to be of modest origin, but they also mention his marriage to Princess Mandana of Media, who was the daughter of Princess Aryenis of Lydia and Astyages, king of the Medes. From their union, Mandane had only one son, Cyrus II, now better known as Cyrus the Great, whom Cambyses named after the child`s grandfather. After the death of Artaxerxes I, his son Artaxerxes Xerxes II became king of Persia, but reigned for only 45 days and was recognized only as king in Persia. He was murdered by his brother Sogdiaanus, who in turn was murdered by his illegitimate half-brother Ochus after about six months of rule over a region composed of little beyond Persia and Elam.
Ochus had been the satrap of Hyrcania, and after killing his brother Arsites, who had tried to imitate his example, he took the name of Darius II, king of Persia. Xerxes, son of Darius I and Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, was appointed to succeed his father before an expedition against the rebels in Egypt. Although he was not the eldest son of Darius I, he ascended the throne as king of Persia due to his mother`s lineage and the fact that he was the first son of Darius I after Darius I became king of Persia. He had become king. After Xerxes became king of Persia, he ruthlessly suppressed rebellions in Egypt and Babylonia before turning to Greece. Xerxes I spent three years gathering supplies and soldiers from all over his empire while preparing roads and canals to help his army pass. After short delays and the loss of part of his fleet to Thermopylae and Artemisium, Xerxes I succeeded in conquering and burning Athens. However, a setback at the Battle of Salamis and news of unrest in Babylon prompted Xerxes to retreat with most of his army. After the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great, Judea became a province of the Seleucid (Syriac) kingdom under Greek rule. Cyrus` conquests ushered in a new era in the era of empire building, in which a vast superstate encompassing several dozen countries, races, religions, and languages was ruled by a single administration headed by a central government. This system lasted for centuries and was maintained both by the invading Seleucid dynasty during their control of Persia and by later Iranian dynasties, including the Parthians and Sassanids.  Xerxes Xerxes (reigned 486-465 BC) was the son of Darius.
He was considered weak and tyrannical. He spent the first years of his reign suppressing rebellions in Egypt and Babylon and preparing another attack on Greece with a huge army that he believed would easily overwhelm the Greeks. Ochus was a younger son of Artaxerxes II and satrap of Phoenicia. He ascended the throne, mainly because his elder brothers had all been eliminated in various conspiracies. In order to secure his position as king of Persia, Artaxerxes III soon had about 80 members of his family executed. He spent most of Artaxerxes III`s reign facing rebellions throughout his empire. After making peace with Athens, he attempted to dissolve the powerful satrap armies of the Anatolian satraps; The ensuing revolt lasted two years to be crushed. Artaxerxes III then turned to the reconquest of Egypt, but was defeated. This massive defeat led to uprisings in Anatolia, Phoenicia and Cyprus.
It took the king of Persia seven years to regain control, but once he did, it was time for another attack on Egypt. This time, Artaxerxes III. successfully and after subjugating the region, he launched a campaign to punish the Egyptians for their resistance. The English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne wrote a lecture in 1658 entitled The Garden of Cyrus, in which Cyrus is portrayed as an archetype of a “wise ruler” – while the Cromwell protectorate ruled Britain. Cyrus the Great won Assyria by defeating the Medes. He conquered Lydia, ruled by King Croesus, in 546 BC. This gave him possession of much of Asia Minor. Babylon was ruled by the Chaldean Empire, which had enslaved the Jews. The Chaldeans abandoned Babylon without a fight in 539 BC. Cyrus thus claimed the ancient city and acquired Palestine.